As the distinctive contribution of Islamic Spain to Arabic literature, the strophic muwashshahand zajal are still viewed by some as a development from putative Romance prototypes. No less than seven theories of origin of the Provencal lyrics have been proffered, foremost among them being the Arabic origins theory. This book lets the strophic muwashshah tell its own tale of a natural development in the context of classical Arabic literature.
Authentic American designs of the 19th and 20th centuries
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